History of the Erie Canal

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Transportation Systems and Design Canals Railroads [pic] [pic] Highways [pic] Engineering’s Impact on Society-MST510 Professor Andrew Wolfe Submitted by: Ryan Darling, BSMET December 7, 2010 Revised submission: January 12, 2011 Table of Contents • Introduction………………………………………………. ……………………………………… 1 • History of Canals…………………………………………………………. …………… ….. 1-3 • Uprising of Canals…………………………………………………………………. ….. …. 3-5 • The Erie Canal……………………………………………………………………… …… …5-7 • Enlarging the Erie……………………………………………….. …………………. ……. 7-9 The Barge Canal………………………………………………………………………. …9-11 • Railroad Development……………………………………………………………… ….. 11-12 • Labor Unions……………………………………………………………………………12-14 • Public Relations………… …………………………………………………. ………………. 14 • Railway Management………………………………………………………………. …. 14-15 • Highway Systems………………………………………………………………………. 15-16 • Beginning of Colonies………………………………………………………………….. 16-17 • Safety……………………………………………………………………………………. 17-19 • New Innovations…………………………………………………… ……………………19-21 • Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………21-22 • Bibliography……………………. ……………………………………………………23-24 • Appendices………………………………………………………………………………25-27 Darling 1 Introduction Throughout history, the United States has discovered ways to adapt to change through the use of technology and design related to the transportation industry and has effectively overcome obstacles in order to fulfill the needs of society. To modernize the country, new ideas, plans, and designs have been developed, over time, to support the vastly growing economy and population. Our nation’s growth can be directly traced back to new forms of technology invented, developed, and reproduced for society.

Three different types of transportation systems/designs that were extremely crucial and revolutionized society, over the ages, are canals (especially the Erie Canal), railroads, and highways. These different forms of transportation methods not only offered service to numerous states, but also exemplified change and advancement in industry. Other miscellaneous factors such as public relations and labor unions further played important roles in how these systems of transportation were designed and constructed. History of Canals The practice of canal-building is an ancient art. The first artificial waterways date back from 7000 B.

C. to 3500 B. C. in Egypt. They proved to be very successful before the canal-lock had been developed. Most of these canals were strictly used for irrigation and/or drainage, regulating the overflows of rivers in Babylonia and Egypt. Babylonia, at this time, led early canal building, connecting the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The main commerce of Egypt (the delta) was run by the canals. Roads were seemingly unimportant, and wheels were very rare in this early civilization. It was said that the Egyptians had somewhere in the range of 80 canals–some more than 100 miles in length.

Under the Roman Empire, their control and building of canals led to their massive rise in power over other civilizations. The most famous of these canals was the Grand Canal which stretched from the Nile to the Red Sea. The canal was said to be approximately 37 miles long, 100 feet wide and 40 feet deep. Around 486 B. C. , China began to build canals, and commerce seemed to follow upon the great rivers of the Huang-Ho and Yangtze. These waterways were navigable 2400 miles to 2900 miles from their mouths along the eastern coast.

The grandest of these waterways, the Yun-Ho (Grand Canal) flowed for a total length of over 800 miles and was repeatedly enlarged and repaired. A total depth of seven to 11 feet was achieved through the construction of 75 locks across the canal which, between 605 and 618 B. C. , could be opened and closed at will. Later, the Chinese began to use inclined planes with stone walls in which boats could be dragged from lower water levels to higher water levels. (Calvert). Europe, and other countries, also built canals to connect rivers for navigational purposes and improve communication with others.

France constructed canals such as the Briare-Montargis Canal, which contained a total of 42 locks, and connected the Seine and Lorie Rivers, the Orleans Canal, in 1675, containing 20 locks; and the Picardy Canal which connected the Somme and the Osie Rivers. The greatest achievement of all for France was the Languedoc Canal, built between 1666 and 1681. The Languedoc Canal was 144 feet wide and six feet deep stretching from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean Sea. Russia also followed suit during 1777 to 1785 with the creation of the Keil Canal which eliminated long difficult passages between the North and Baltic Seas.

The canal contained six locks, 27 feet by 100 feet, that could support ships up to a total weight of 120 tons (Calvert). Strategically, the United States was best suited for navigation along its coast and river waters. Early ambitious plots were devised to create shortcuts and routes to inland populated areas, thus increasing commerce. The most important schemes of the time period stretched from the Chesapeake to the Delaware to link Baltimore and Philadelphia, from the Susquehanna to the Delaware to join Pennsylvania with Philadelphia, and the Alleghany producing a route to Ohio from Lake Ontario to the Delaware and Philadelphia,

Darling 3 and, lastly, from the Presque Isle to Lake Erie extending to the Allegheny River and into Ohio. The first successful major American canal was considered to be the Erie Canal of New York State. It is the only truly profitable canal that was ever constructed in the United States. The Delaware and Hudson Canal was a major influence to the United States, later indirectly supplying funding to building railways (Calvert). Beginning of Canals The most successful canals of the United States were constructed within New York State due to its geographical features and its natural path to the Great Lakes.

The growth of canals in New York State would have never been accomplished without the Delaware and Hudson, after the Erie, Canal. Along the Mohawk, Hudson, and many other waterways, the major occupation was lumbering. Land mass was cleared along the canals to make way for construction of houses, mills, and other major projects. At that time, the main system of transportation was turnpikes and toll roads where stage coaches could travel. The problems foreseen with commerce allowed a clear view on new transportation methods required, thus the creation of canal systems (Shaw).

The history of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company stretches back more than a century, creating the largest amount of revenue during it time. Its dominance was largely due to William Wurts, the discoverer of coal in Pennsylvania. The land that the coal was on was considered worthless, yielding a price of only fifty cents to three dollars per acre. The canal became responsible for solely coal transportation. After ten years or so and a massive number of tons of coal, the state looked east for more accessible routes of navigation. In 1822-1823 an important act was passed to improve navigation of the Lackawaxen River.

The act allowed Wurts to improve the channel, establish dams, add locks or canals and make a navigational route which could be regulated by tolls. The act later was Darling 4 followed by the President, Managers and Company of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company affirming that, “Since the “stone” coal was so desirable, the waterways of the Lackawaxen were subjected to improvements for water communication between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers. ” Col. Sullivan, a designer of canals, was asked to survey the land and provide a better estimate of project cost.

He presented a letter to the commissioners stating his findings to cost around $1,208,632. 95 to produce composite locks, inclined planes, lifts, and water supply. Col Sullivan concluded, “The primary objective of the canal conceded to be the introduction of coal into the State of New York” (qtd. in “The Delaware and Hudson Canal”). The Delaware and Hudson Company, at this time, could reach for hundreds of miles westward and still be more beneficial with the Susquehanna River. The actual building of the canal began in September 1825.

A combined workforce of 500 men created 60 locks of hammered stone. In February 9, 1826, The Pennsylvania General Assembly suggested that locks should be sufficient enough to pass boats, arks, and crafts which carried loads of 25 tons (“The Delaware and Hudson Canal”). The Delaware and Hudson Canal Company later was provided with extended privileges of a railway system to connect with the canal. To successfully complete this project, Engineer Jervis was directed by the board to prepare plans creating a railway system, which traveled through the Moosic Mountains over many inclined planes.

Jervis engineered very complex plans including inclined planes and gravity planes which could be powered by stationary steam engines. By 1832, an estimate of ninety thousand tons of coal and three million tons of lumber had been sent down Jervis’ railway system, and eventually his railway system realized a significant business. The Delaware and Hudson Canal consisted of intricate railway systems and lock designs which laid the groundwork for other canals to be built. Although the expenditures of building the canal were great, these

Darling 5 costs were far outweighed by the growth of markets, commerce, enormous resources, and profits (“The Delaware and Hudson Canal”). The Erie Canal The New York State Canal (Erie Canal) has been widely viewed as a major historical transportation system in United States history. Out of the canal waters, brewed a major rise in commerce which placed New York State above any other state during the time period. Its transformation over time from the Erie Canal, to the Enlarged Erie Canal, to the Erie Barge Canal, led to New York State’s dominance over every other state.

The building of the Erie Canal starting in 1817 launched the beginning of a great national expansion. The increased growth and expansion of newly formed settlements of America led to a number of substantial needs such as: communication, a means by which thousands could travel between settlements; inert resources, essential products that are marketable; and respective want, a major link that binds all settlements together. Thomas Tooke introduced a book called, History of Prices, which specified the problem of the times: The removal of obstacles from several sources of foreign supply; a great xtension of some of them and the discovery of new ones, a great reduction of charges of importation, and more rapid internal communications, the fall of some commodities, in a greater degree than the previous rise, the effect of improvements in machinery, in cultivation, in science, and in the facility and comparative cheapness of communication. (“Building the Erie”) The absence or delay of the Erie Canal could have possibly changed the nation completely. History shows that without the Erie Canal the foreign menace of Canada would have been enriched strategically with the same proportions as the United States.

Throughout the Darling 6 earliest days of the canal, the most rapidly growing sections of land were the Great Northwest Territory and sections which bordered the Great Lakes. One of the most astounding features of the canal was its ability to carry more than five times the vessels as the Canadian, United States, and Suez Canal combined, with a tonnage “Equivalent to nearly 40 percent of that of the entire railroad system of the United States. ” Between the periods of 1820 and 1830, immigration equaled the loss due to emigration which produced a massive growth in such cities as Detroit and Cleveland.

Statistical analysis shows that the population of states was: New York with 7,722, Ohio with 1,965, Pennsylvania with 998, Massachusetts with 922, and Illinois with 568. Out of a total of 116,340, 70,695 were born in America (“Building the Erie”). New York State, when seen from a map, possesses a great advantage over any other state from inland to seaboard. To this day, it is the only state, with the exception of Maine, which extends from the Atlantic Ocean to Canada, advantageously touching some of the Great Lakes while still connecting with the inland of the Middle West.

If New York State was deprived of New York City, however, the state would have no ocean port within the state, which would impact coastal trade of imports or exports. The state would still have access, just not on the Atlantic. The State would be stripped of three and one-half billion dollars of accessible property out of a total of less than six billion and more than three million inhabitants out of its total seven million inhabitants. The canal stimulated the growth of population in areas. The percentage of un-naturalized aliens rose four percent over a span of 15 years to nearly a ten percent difference between the years 1820 to 1836.

The canal formed a new perspective on business and launched the beginning of a new life for Americans (“Building the Erie”). The most striking point of the Erie Canal was its major growth impact on cities which surrounded or bordered the waterway. Statistics illustrated in Professor Tucker’s book, Progress of the United States in Population and Wealth, indicate that Rochester experienced a population Darling 7 growth of 282 percent, Buffalo experienced a population growth of 314 percent, Syracuse experienced a population growth of 282 percent, and Utica experienced a population growth of 243 percent.

By the year 1900, New York State was comprised of many major cities with populations over 25,000 inhabitants, making the state most populous to any other (“Building the Erie”). Hawthorne, a famous writer of the era, described his travels along the Erie Canal seeing for himself the importance as he traveled along its waters. The most significant successes of the canal were the emergence of towns, churches and theaters, businesses, luxury refinement, and polished citizens. Hawthorne came across boats which carried many different goods such as lumber, salt from Syracuse, or even flour from Genesee transported in huge “line boats”.

During his great adventure, his fondest memory was having met a colony of the Swiss who were on their way to Michigan, merely singing, giving spirit, and bringing new profound fashions with them to the great country. Hawthorne was strongly displeased with the travel between Utica and Syracuse, which he described as a desolate wasteland, not containing a lock for 70 miles (Hawthorne). Enlarging the Erie From 1825 to 1834, the new development of the Erie Canal gained permanence, even though the first successful enlargement wasn’t completed until 1862.

Over the succeeding years, canal traffic had begun to increase considerably, and excess revenue was collected at tolls. Tolls from 1826 to 1834 amounted to $8,539,377. 70 which suggested the need for a larger expansion of the Erie Canal. During the beginning phases of opening the canal, packet and freight boats were causing devastating effects on the sidewalls of the canal. The tow paths wore away from erosion and had to be constantly built back up again. Before the enlargement of the canal, controlling this Darling 8 problem, although serious, was very simple but only temporary.

The building of great stone walls, addition of wood, and arising of banks took care of the problem. Over time, in many places the canal locks also began to settle and, therefore, simply needed to be replaced. Other factors, such as the packet boats receiving the right of way over other boats and the quantity of boats passing through the locks, created congestion. To solve this problem, commissioners recommended double chamboring the locks. In some places, the locks was obviously apparent, such as in Schenectady which totaled more than twenty thousand lockages for the year of 1833.

By doubling the number of lock chambors within populated sections, state commissioners believed the increase in traffic would be accommodated, and large boats with significant tonnage would be able to pass with ease (“Enlarging the Erie”). Governor William L. Marcy presented insight about the enlargement of the canal in his annual message in 1833: The canals were rapidly accumulating means for extinguishment of the debt from which they were constructed. When the construction of the canal was accomplished, the tolls should be placed upon replenishing the treasury, to an mount at least equal to the sum abstracted from the general fund. Shall the state accumulate a debt for the ordinary expenses of the government, trusting on future income of the canal? ”(1) Later Marcy also stated, “If our canals are to be a wise management, we cannot fail to make them – the principal channels for this trade – we must calculate its extent, and make them adequate to this object” (“Enlarging the Erie”). Despite the warnings of the governor, the state began enlargement, agreeing that a double chamboring of locks in selective places would be strongly beneficial.

A great deal of expansion was authorized between Syracuse and Albany which called for a doubling of locks. The design of the locks consisted of two methods–placing two lock chambors side by side and . By also increasing the width of the canal, four boats would be able to pass. Each double chambored lock would be able to perform more than double the lockages of the old locks. Even though the governor did not support the enlargement of the canal, the canal appeared to show prosperity, which altered the expenditure for improvement.

On the other hand, the debt experienced by the Erie and Champlain canals totaled about $4,934,652. 68. Eventually, the enlargement became a huge necessity to the state of New York. Hence, under the Stop Tax Law of 1842, the public disregarded the governor’s warnings and demanded more communication, support for increased traffic, and quicker travel rates. The debt added up significantly over time, and the expenditures for expansion were impractical, growing rapidly. The board inevitably discontinued their endeavor to enlarge the Erie Canal due to the continuous struggles they experienced.

The Erie Canal was unique in its design and influence and was pivotal to the economy and history of New York State (“Enlarging the Erie”). The Barge Canal In 1903 the people of the State of New York decided to again enlarge the canal by constructing the Barge Canal. Before the state entered the project, the general merits of both barge canals and ship canals were considered by various boards and engineers. A barge canal was eventually selected mainly because vessels built for oceanic services could not be operated to their full extent in the Great Lakes or in a channel connecting the lakes with the Atlantic seaboard.

Additionally, the capacities of a ship canal for handling large amounts of freight would not exceed the barge canal, and it would be cheaper to transfer freight at the end of the canal into barges (Finch). The canal consisted of the Erie Canal as well as other systems–the Champlain, the Oswego, and the Cayuga and Seneca canals. The Erie Canal was approximately 340 miles in length, the Champlain 63 miles in length, the Oswego 24 miles in length, and the Cayuga and Darling 10 Seneca 27 miles in length.

The Barge Canal formed a total length of 800 miles–a superior improvement over the inland waterway navigation—and, as such, was pronounced one of the greatest engineering marvels of its time. The Barge Canal system was broadly different than any canals ever built before, using the lowest watercourses in valleys wherever possible instead of creating artificial waterways above ground. In order for the canal to operate properly, it was essential to have an unfailing supply of water.

The Niagara supplied an adequate amount of water to the canal in the western part of the state, but the main problem with the canal was supplying it in the eastern part of the state. The canal system required a great deal of study, research, and examination because an efficient system was essential for the purposes of overcoming the major traffic between Rome and Troy during the dry spells of the summer months. The problem was solved by building two large storage reservoirs, one of which was on the headwaters of the Mohawk, and the other along West Canada Creek at Hinckley (Finch).

The ingenious design of the Barge Canal made use of resources from the Hudson, Mohawk, Seneca, Oswego and Clyde rivers to form a system of canals (“canalizing them”). The method used to develop the Barge Canal design consisted of determining proper depths by a combination of dams, locks, and dredging channels. The dams constructed for the canal were of two types—fixed and moveable. The most notable fixed type dams are those located along the Mohawk River between Schenectady and Cohoes. Located at Crescent, the structure was 39 feet above the river bed with a length of one-half mile.

Mohawk movable dams looked like steel bridges with concrete piers and abutments and spans of structural steel. Overall there were 57 locks on the Barge Canal with a variety of lock lifts which ranged from six to 40 feet. The locks were constructed of concrete and operated by electricity. The most extravagant of locks were the five located in Troy which consisted of the world’s greatest series of high lift locks. The total lift was an elevation change of over 169 feet, which is double that of the sea-level to summit of the Darling 11 Panama Canal.

There were 306 railroad and highway bridges that crossed the canal. These bridges were either fixed or stationary, but highway bridges of the lift type were constructed in a few towns and small villages. A large number of walls, culverts, and spillways were constructed, taintor gates were used extensively, and over three million yards of concrete was used. A total of one hundred million yards of earth was removed due to the construction of the Barge Canal (Finch). Railroad Development The railroad industry revolutionized transportation as well as business practices in the United States.

Beginning in the 19th century, rivers, canals, and horse–drawn carriages were the most suitable means of transportation. Furthermore, these forms of transportation were considered the only means by which the United States could move goods and people. A major advantage of railroads over earlier transportation systems, over time, was that railroads could carry a massive capacity of resources and people. The “Best Friend of Charleston” was the first steam powered train designed in the U. S. , carrying a total of 141 people over a distance of six miles on its very first run in 1830.

Three cities–Boston, Baltimore, and Charleston led in the railway industry, establishing the major railroads of the time. With its effective speed and ability to travel in variable weather conditions, railway systems attracted travelers and businesses. By 1840 over 2,818 miles of track had been laid down, and 30,000 miles of track was laid by the start of the Civil War. The growth and development resulted from the rise in federal government loans and available free land grants to the railroad companies which allowed them to extend tracks far beyond their original boundaries.

In the year 1869, the first transcontinental railroad was completed when tracks from the Union Pacific met with the Central Pacific (“Brief History of the U. S. Passenger Rail Industry”). Darling 12 Between 1848 and 1852 railroad mileage nearly doubled. Just three short years later, the mileage doubled again. During this burst of activity, four railroad companies were established covering territories from the Atlantic seaboard to the great interior valley. In 1851, the Erie Railroad, the longest in the world with 537 miles of track, linked the Hudson River with Dunkirk, New York or Pennsylvania.

In 1852, the Baltimore and Ohio reached the Ohio River at Wheeling. In 1853, a banker named Erastus Corning consolidated eight lines connecting Albany to Buffalo to form the New York Central Railroad. Lastly, in 1858 the Pennsylvania Railroad drove a line across the mountains from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh (Carnes and Garraty 364-365). Railroads offered better convenience, lower costs, and quicker shipping times than the earlier forms of transportation such as the Erie Canal or by wagon. The most important advantage that railroads offered was reliability of reaching destinations on time.

During the 1800’s, an additional 70,000 miles of track was laid resulting in increased numbers of town and cities. Between 1896 and 1916, rates of travel increased accounting for over 95% of all inter city transportation (“Brief History of the U. S. Passenger Rail Industry”). Labor Unions In the 1900’s, labor unions were strongly affected by the railroads, and capital became a major public interest. To assure proper railroad services, constraints had to be imposed, not only upon the property owners, but also upon people who serviced the railroads.

In 1886 much was happening to inform men about property along the railroads, most of whom were railroad executives. Labor issues resulted in the forming of groups such as the Knights of Labor, whose members fought against railroad disorder and violence among workers. Strikes were formed in an effort to secure fair and reasonable compensation for work performed; for example, the ability to work a ten hour shift and get paid for ten hours plus premium versus only getting paid for eight hours. Also during this time, a series of meetings were conducted over issues related to Darling 13 rotection of the railroad industry and its workers. Protection for railroads became a great concern; therefore, a bill was written, as cited in The Chicago Daily News in April 1886, as follows: Anyone who willfully and illegally impedes or obstructs any railroad or its employees in the transporting, receiving, handling, loading, unloading, or delivery of any passengers, government supplies, mails, or freight in interstate commerce should be liable to appropriate fine and imprisonment, the United States district courts have jurisdiction to restrain violations of the law. 2) Committees were formed during the late 1800’s to deal with the problems in the railroad industry. Three general committees were formed–Committee No. 1 provided agencies in Philadelphia and Baltimore and proposed in its July 20th report that if there were findings of any association with demands of labor organizations, or of others, for increased pay rates or changes in rules, the committee would make careful investigations and report its findings of the railroads affected; Committee No. regulated the demands of any labor organization for increased pay or changes in rules; and Committee No. 3 was intent on solving the problems of the Santa Fe workers, regulating pay for their employees. Offenses brought forth by the Committee for handling included (1) the cost of collecting men; (2) the expense of forwarding these men to the nearest point on the line that needed them; (3) the board and wages of these men until put to work, and the duration of this period at the discretion of Committee No. ; and (4) the cost of returning men to their homes if they were not needed (McMurry). The main objective for most strikes was to achieve fair compensation for services of the employees of railroads that were engaged in the operation of trains and to establish rights of workers to be paid sufficient wages for any and all hours of work performed. The Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court decided that–“Whatever would be the right of an employee engaged in private business to Darling 14 emand such was as he desires, to leave the employment if he does not get them, and concert of action, to agree with others to leave open the same condition, such rights are necessary subject to limitation when employment is accepted in a business charged with public interest” (3). Public Relations Most of the land west of the colonies, beginning in the first half of the nineteenth century, saw railroads as the perfect vehicle for access to growing markets and natural resources. Public relations led to its present position as an intricate and functional part of society.

The term “public relations” refers to the broadcasting of a message about a product, service, or company through a variety of media to generate credibility, visibility, understanding and awareness to the consumer. Despite the misconceptions about the general being, the main audience, relations can also refer to industrial firms searching more visibility for their consumers. Issues involving public relations are generally displayed throughout the areas of trade and business media.

Railroads accomplished good public relations in the 1900’s due to the high transportation of goods and services to the public (Director of Operations Systems, Bentley Systems 17-19). Railway Management Railways were a conceived form of transportation allowing quicker and timelier routes to destinations. Railway management has become a leading factor today and offers many great advances to the nation. Railways have become a superior mode for transportation across the globe, allowing heavy reliance because of its efficiency.

The demands that railroads produce can only be solved by the effective management of immense data and extraction of excellent information. Technology has always been a major player in the development/ modernization of railways. Railway design was based upon improving safety, reliability, profitability, and realizing cost efficient transportation methods. Darling 15 How do policy shifts, in general, result in new business models? Studies suggest that new policies often outlaw existing models without offering alternatives, thereby leaving many businesses to find new ways to expand.

For example, the regulation of the communication industry limiting the holdings of broadcasters—however, it was radio managers who devised the “network” model in which many stations with different owners act together. The analysis of this yields important lessons for industrialists in sociology/economics. First, the business models that a company uses can represent a multiple number of models. Second, the widespread use of a given model is not reducible to simple optimization, where similarly-situated firms respond as if to competitive and regulatory conditions.

The adoption of new business models is a social process where a firm advances their respective interests (Director of Operations Systems, Bentley Systems 17-19). Highway Systems During the nineteenth century, roads started to become increasingly popular because of bicycles as well as the automobile, which called for more advances in safety, comfort, speed, and economical for highways and turnpikes. Wherever there is danger, traffic is forced to reduce speed and flow more slowly. This, in turn, causes delays, congestion, exasperated drivers, and more accidents.

To adjust for these problems and avoid recurring or foreseen problems, new functional designs are continually developed in roads. During the ages of man, people have found new ways to take earlier constructed matter and construct new improved forms. The Belt Parkway is a prime example illustrating this concept. It was built for the purpose of reconstructing Indian camping grounds that existed for a number of years. The Belt Parkway was actually constructed by the Indians and laid out with maps to increase the lines of communication and travel over the diverse lands.

To make way for progressive improvement, it was necessary for Indian leaders to view their surroundings and take Darling 16 advantage of logical events. Over the decades, many people at the national and state level as well as municipal governments, engineers, contractors, workers, citizens in groups and individually, and representatives of the press have contributed in this way to society. Studying the maps of the Belt System, one can see the neglected and reclaimed territory as an opening of new possibilities.

By examining the map of the Belt Parkway (Figure 1: The Belt Parkway), one can deduce its vastness and effect it would likely have had on travel, recreation, residence, transportation and industry. At this time, New Yorkers knew little about territories outside of their daily traveled roads (Moses 8-10). There were other significant routes in Long Island during this era where Indian trails were formed. Long Island owes most of its strategic routes to the formation of its land by glaciers which formed huge ridges, moraines, and flat lands to the south.

The Long Island Trail is a very long trail which stretches from the formation of the island to the settlement of the aborigines. The Delaware tribe had numerous problems with migrating to the Delaware region stretching from upper New York, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. As a result, several branches of tribes formed in the region. The Indians of Long Island were a well-known branch which had a total of 13 separate bands of tribes that formed on the Island. The land in Long Island offered vast commodities of seafood, planting lands, and hunting grounds.

Travel was profitable as trails and paths were plentiful and served not only as a means of transportation but also defense to the tribes. Over the years, war broke out between the Mohawk tribe and the settling white tribes who planned extermination of all of the Indians (Moses 8-10). Beginning of Colonies The first actual prosperous colonies that were established were the Dutch colony in the settlement of Middleburg in 1656, New Utrecht in 1657, and Bushwick or Woodtown in 1660. Most of the beginning colonies flourished in small, self-contained entities which resulted in

Darling 17 problems related to inheritance and the thoroughfare problem. The Dutch were unlike the Indians as they provided only cart ways, known as cow paths, for settlers to go to the village for trading and shelter. Grants were established that allowed roads to diverge from the center, as illustrated on the map of Long Island’s geographical features (Figure 2: Long Island Geographical Features). The paths were widely used, eventually making them insufficient for the transportation needs of Long Island.

In 1704 the legislature laid out plans to develop a road, four rods wide, between the Brooklyn Ferry to East Hampton, running through the central part of Long Island (Moses 8-10). A century ago, the people of Long Island used plank roadways which were popular throughout the country and were constructed all throughout the island. Eventually, these plank roadways led the way to the paving of roadways which advanced Long Island forward. More projects were developed that were similar to the Belt Parkway. These projects included the Atlantic Avenue and Rockaway Grade Crossing eliminations.

The Atlantic Avenue project eliminated railroad grade crossings by depressing the railroad within a subway, while still providing a great connection with the Belt Parkway and the center of Brooklyn. On the other hand, the Rockaway grade crossing elimination was related to the improvements made along the peninsula. The plan was to accomplish the elimination of the aqueduct and reconstruction of the railroad. The plan ultimately formed an embankment of five railroad bridges at various highway intersections, three that were the Belt Parkway.

These railroad bridges carried the traffic from the railroad over the parkway and service roads, which still fits in with the framework for other bridges of the area today (Moses 21-22). Safety Today, the main highway attributes that cause the most accidents are as follows: (1) a crossroad in which two crossing streams of traffic use the same Darling 18 pavement, thus causing greater congestion on the highways; (2) the road edge or stationary hazards at the roadside such as soft shoulders, culverts, fences, hydrants, etc. (3) cars that are moving in opposite directions, resulting in head on collisions (which accounts for the largest number of fatal accidents on roadways); (4) cars moving in the same direction but at different speeds, resulting in sideswiping or rear end collisions. The most common safety hazard involves cars exercising unsafe passing habits on two-lane roads. An example of this would be one car overtaking another traveling in the same direction which involves the passing car to temporarily weave into the lane of opposing traffic.

While 50 years ago, there were obviously fewer moving vehicles that traveled at lower speeds, today’s volume of automobiles out on the roadways and modern speeds commands safe highway provisions in order to save lives. In spite of this problem imposing safety concerns, many state highways still use two-lane roadways over any other. Astoundingly, 98% percent still use two-lane roadways. The first step taken for the separation of traffic on existing highways was in 1911 by Edward Hines, Road Commissioner of Wayne County, Michigan. Hines proposed that the white lines be painted on all roadways and bridges to define the center.

There are also other methods that were used in an effort to separate traffic which were later patented; for example, dividers in the form of a wave crest, running along the sides of the road (Geddes, chapter 3 “Safety, Comfort, Speed and Economy”). The old phrase “the open road” applies to the early days of the horse and buggy when there was little traffic, so roads were wide open for traveling. Crossing at points of intersections was not seen as a major issue because the horse and buggy was not moving at excessive speeds. With the invention of the automobile, however, things changed drastically, necessitating a solution for heading off roblems on the highways. One solution was the creation of junctions which served as dividers to separate traffic, thus diminishing the issue of passing. Junctions are generally in the shape of a ‘Y’ or ‘T’ and join at an acute angle. Other highway provisions were necessarily made Darling 19 providing traffic warnings due to locomotives crossing over roads. Signs, signals, and bells became important to safely alert and stop traffic in advance of a train’s actual arrival (Geddes, chapter 3 “Safety, Comfort, Speed and Economy”). New Innovations

New inventions started to arise in the automotive industry. In 1903 Sewell K. Croker left San Francisco with a newly designed two cylinder Winton, and after two months and two days, he was the first to ever arrive in New York City driving an automobile. The main goal of the states across the nation was to form better roads. The Lincoln Highway Association led the movement to create better highways. The Lincoln Highway was considered to be ahead of its time. It was comprised of spurs, old junctions, cross-patches of trails, and good communication roads.

The roadway passed through 110 cities, 220 towns, and spanned over a total mileage of 3,056 miles. Other roadways such as the Santa Fe Trail, the Broadway of America, and the Yellowstone Route eventually began to follow the same concepts as the Lincoln Highway. Many other forms of transcontinental roadways were formed during this period of time. One hundred and seventeen routes between the northern and the southern boundaries were formed, and these routes were evenly numbered from east to west (Geddes, chapter 8 “From the Atlantic to the Pacific in One Day”).

The Futurama exhibit (Figure 3: Futurama Exhibit) from General Motors illustrates new innovations and the future of highway design. The exhibit was to contain 100 mph, 75 mph, and 50 mph roadways that would intersect each other. Seen from a map, the routes vary based upon the turns and curves along the contours of the land. Similar to today’s highways, the exhibit’s routes that were 100 mph and 75 mph were straighter with fewer curves than the 50 mph zones (Geddes, chapter 8 “From the Atlantic to the Pacific in One Day”). Darling 20 R. E.

Toms, The Chief of the Division of the Public Roads Administration, was quoted as having said, “From a quarter to a half of the roads during the past twenty years of the time were unfit for high speed traffic. ” In Kansas, the Emporia Weekly Gazette described the highways as “country road systems” to avoid the typical township road-to-road travel which was bumpy, narrow, unkempt, and in some cases unpaved. In 1924, the roadway systems had a rural and city accident rate that was pretty much equivalent–about ten thousand accidents each.

The accidents in the rural areas and small communities increased to 170 percent in cities and 30 percent in rural areas over a given time. This posed a major problem during the era with the construction of highways. States had to find ways to lower accidents by diverting congested areas. The Public Highway Administration eventually fixed this problem by proclaiming that one percent of all highway funds/tolls must be devoted to repair and roadside development (Geddes, chapter 10 “Motorway Service to Towns and Villages”). Other advances such as the Keyport By-pass in New Jersey are extremely important.

The By-pass system allowed a total of 50 thousand cars per day in the metropolitan area. By-pass construction required protecting the main highways from interruptions of local traffic and protecting the towns from the devastating effects of traffic. The British were the first to make use of by-passes, thus reducing traffic due to the movement of people out of the factory system environment to open country. Fourier and Cabet were the first men who began with the building of these communities, while countries such as Germany, Sweden, and Switzerland followed in 1920.

The Federal Bureau of Public Roads reported that the only way to solve traffic entering and leaving cities was to provide the proper exit points by which to carry traffic (Geddes, chapter 10 “Motorway Service to Towns and Villages”). Darling 21 Chicago and New York City were two cities which were committed to dealing with the dilemma of proper exit points. In 1960 if one were to visit New York City, he would have seen the beginning of towers taking shape on the flat terrains running along the river. Statistics show that New York City had approximately one million inhabitants prior to 1960.

This figure was anticipated to rise to a staggering two million by 1960. New York State encompasses more than one hundred and fifty times the area of New York City. New York City averages over an area of 36 miles long and 17 miles wide. On average, cars in New York City travel a speed of 15 miles per hour. However, within the center of the city, cars average only six miles per hour. Although Manhattan consists of only one percent of the total area of New York State, it contains a total of 78 miles of roadway which is intersected by 407 streets and avenue crossings. In 1927

Ernest Flagg devised a plan to divide traffic into three categories: pedestrians, fast vehicles, and slow vehicles. The purpose of his plan was to build elevated roadways providing a special right of way for rapidly moving vehicular traffic. By 1940 the street speed in New York City averaged about 15 miles per hour, while Boulevard speeds averaged about 25 miles per hour. In 1960 it was statistically shown that the speeds doubled (Geddes, chapter 11 “Motorway Tributaries to Cities”). Conclusion New ideas, plans, and designs for improved transportation systems have been of the essence to American society and its progression over centuries.

The introduction of new technologies such as the boat, train, and automobile fundamentally influenced the design of new transportation systems—canals, railroads, and highways—all of which had a profound and permanent impact on society. The adaptation of our nation throughout the ages to change from waterways, to railroads, to highways, and to continually develop modern advances in the present Darling 22 day, provides evidence for our ability to not only succeed in the future, but thrive. Simply put, Engineering and Society, ironically the name of this class, go hand in hand.

Darling 23 Bibliography “Brief History of the U. S. Passenger Rail Industry. ” Duke University Libraries, n. d. Web. 27 Nov. 2010. < http://library. duke. edu/digitalcollections/adaccess/rails-history. html>. Calvert, J. B. “Varieties of Canals and Their History. ” Notes on Canal History and Engineering. 2000, n. d. Web. 24 Nov. 2010. . Carnes, Mark C. and John A. Garraty. The Sections Go Their Ways. American Destiny. 3rd ed. , vol. 1. John A. Garraty. New York: Pearson Education, Inc. , 2008. 1-459. Print. Director of Operations Systems, Bentley

Systems. “Railway Management. ” (Feb. 2009):17-19. Finch, Roy G. “The Story of New York State Canals: Governor Dewitt Clinton’s Dream. ” The Barge Canal. New York State Canal Corporation. 1998. Web. 26 Nov. 2010. Geddes, Norman Bel. Magic Motorways. New York: American Book_Stratford Press, Inc. , (1940). Hawthorne, Nathaniel. “The Canal Boat. ” New England Magazine. 9 Dec. 1835: 398-409. McMurry, Donald L. “Labor Policies of the General Managers’ Association of Chicago, 1886- 1894. ” The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 13, No. 2. (1953): 160-178.

Moses, Robert. The Belt Parkway. 2010. 8-22. Shaw, Ronald. Erie Water West – A History of the Erie Canal. The University Press of Kentucky, 1966. Google books, Web. 28 Nov. 2010. . Whitford, Noble E. “Enlarging the Erie. ” History of the Canal System of the State of New York. (2006): Vol. 1. Web. 25 Nov. 2010. . —. “The Delaware and Hudson Canal. ” History of the Canal System of the State of New York. (2006): Vol. 1. Web. 25 Nov. 2010. . —. “The Erie Canal. ” History of the Canal System of the State of New York. (2006): Vol. 1. Web. 25 Nov. 2010. . References 1) Governor’s Annual Message, 1834 (2) On an injunction issued in this strike, see Chicago Daily News, April 22, 1886; Chicago Inter Ocean, April 23, 1886; Chicago Tribune, April 26, 1886; E. R. Beckner, History of Labor Legislation in Illinois (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1929), p. 46 (3) Leblebici, Huseyin, Gerald R. Salancik, Anne Copay, and Tom King. 1991. “Institutional Change and the Transformation of Interorganizational Fields: An Organizational History of the U. S. Broadcasting Industry. ” Administrative Science Quarterly 36:333-63. Images http://www. oogle. com/imgres? imgurl=http://www. history. rochester. edu/canal/images/canal. jpg&imgrefurl=http://www. history. rochester. edu/canal/&usg=__ax9sgzPgQahpEjxpUvEiP8Udg-c=&h=244&w=300&sz=21&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=AkDyACUicP-knM:&tbnh=144&tbnw=175&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dthe%2Berie%2Bcanal%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg. mozilla:en-US:official%26biw%3D1728%26bih%3D941%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=1167&ei=qqgrTeCHIcGSnwfp5ZHgCQ&oei=qqgrTeCHIcGSnwfp5ZHgCQ&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=40&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0&tx=73&ty=47 http://www. google. com/imgres? mgurl=http://img2. photographersdirect. com/img/21621/wm/pd1342645. jpg&imgrefurl=http://www. photographersdirect. com/buyers/stockphoto. asp%3Fimageid%3D1342645&usg=__vfjSsqHLSyQEbtpyYBJJuLlNVlc=&h=332&w=500&sz=61&hl=en&start=13&zoom=1&tbnid=F1mjxDiizuxD0M:&tbnh=86&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcharleston%2Brailroad%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg. mozilla:en-US:official%26biw%3D1728%26bih%3D941%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:1&itbs=1 http://www. google. com/imgres? imgurl=http://www. nairaland. com/attachments/64504_Most_complex_interchange_____Houston_Texas_Inetrstate_ 0_Highways_interchange_jpgccffff225c25ebb607874cab2575a2df&imgrefurl=http://www. nairaland. com/nigeria/topic-110530. 0. html&usg=__LlTBVmKFBPDacfzsopl_ClV7S84=&h=480&w=640&sz=148&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=9Z4MkyJpEX_LGM:&tbnh=164&tbnw=207&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dhighways%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg. mozilla:en-US:official%26biw%3D1728%26bih%3D941%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=796&vpy=569&dur=1043&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=130&ty=112&ei=L6krTeyvNovJnAfc5rjWCQ&oei=L6krTeyvNovJnAfc5rjWCQ&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=29&ved=1t:429,r:18,s:0 Darling 25

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