Abstract This paper explores Erik Erikson’s theory of personality. Erikson believes that personality develops within eight stages that spans an individual’s lifetime. He calls his theory the psychosocial stages of development which places emphasis on gaining virtues that strengthen the ego. Three articles are used to give more insight to Erikson’s theory of development. Each article agrees that Erikson makes many great contributions to psychology as well as other fields. This paper uses mainly Hergenhahn and Olson (2007) findings to help relate Erikson’s theory to the life of Marie Lockhart.
All names within this paper have been changed to protect the individual’s privacy. Marie was interviewed to gain information about her life. Also, since Marie is a close friend, much information came from personal knowledge and observation. For the most part Marie’s life follows Erikson’s stages of development. There are a few events that occur before Erikson’s theory plans for them, but Erikson allows for this in the overview of his theory. ? The Life of Marie Lockhart in Relation to Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development
Many theorists have studied personality and developed their own theories. Hergenhahn and Olson (2007) find that there are many different theories of personality because personality has such complexity that it is impossible to cover all aspects of personality within one theory. Likewise, personality study can be taken in a number of directions, that which can be related to the biography of each theorist. (Hergenhahn and Olson, 2007). Due to the numerous theories on personalities, which theory is the most correct?
According to Hergenhahn and Olson (2007), all personality theories are important. Much about personality is desired to be known. It is essential that to grasp a complete understanding of personality that one must take portions from all the theories provided about personality after deciding which aspect of personality is being studied (Hergenhahn and Olson, 2007). This paper examines Erik Erikson’s theory of personality and then relates his theory to an individual’s, Marie Lockhart’s, life. Each of Erik Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development is related to Marie’s life.
However, Erikson’s stages start from birth and extend to death. Marie’s life is related to Erikson’s theory starting at her earliest recollections through her present developmental stage and discusses each crisis and how it was resolved resulting in the gaining or not gaining of the specific virtue associated with each particular stage. For the earlier years in which Marie does not recall, I make speculations based on my personal knowledge of the subject and through the information acquired through a personal interview with the subject.
This paper discusses how the earlier stages of Marie’s life are tied to her present life and how these stages affect her still today. Erikson’s theory of personality is defined as psychosocial stages of development and includes eight stages which cover a complete lifespan from birth until death (Hergenhahn and Olson, 2007). As noted by Hergenhahn and Olson (2007), associated with each stage is a crisis which is viewed as a turning point within the particular stage of development.
The crisis can have either a positive or negative resolution. If positively resolved, the individual will gain a specific virtue. Also, related to each stage is a ritualization or ritualism. Ritualizations are aspects of personality that aid an individual in becoming an acceptable member of society through culturally approved behaviors related to everyday life; whereas, ritualisms are exaggerated ritualizations and are not found culturally appropriate.
Respectively, the eight stages and the crisis associated with each developmental stage are as follows: Infancy: basic trust versus basic mistrust; Early Childhood: autonomy versus shame and doubt; Preschool Age: initiative versus guilt; School Age: industry versus inferiority; Adolescence: identity versus role confusion; Young Adulthood; intimacy versus isolation; Adulthood: generativity versus stagnation; and Old Age: ego integrity versus despair (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2007). Chatterjee, Bailey, and Aronoff (2001) find that Erikson’s theory follows the epigenetic principle.
This means that the stages of Erikson’s theory are biologically determined and are unable to be changed. Erikson believes that all eight stages are present at birth but reveal themselves according to their time frame. As each stage emerges it builds on what is achieved during the previous stage, thus building a stronger ego as each stage is positively mastered. Chatterjee et al (2001) find it important that although Erikson believes these stages to be universal, to always be away of the culture of the individual that is being studying when applying Erikson’s stages of development.
What is culturally acceptable in one culture may not be so in another (Chatterjee et al. , 2001). Massey (1986) finds that Erikson expands psychoanalytic theory to include viewpoints of Albert Adler’s Individual Psychology. Erikson takes Sigmund Freud’s ego and gives it characteristics and needs of its own. He thinks both the social and ego processes are as important as the biological processes. Erikson remains linked to Freud’s psychoanalytic views by corresponding his first five stages to Freud’s psychoanalytic stages of development.
In contrast with Freud, Erikson does not place his focus on sexual emphasis and he also values the influence of culture in the development of personality (Massey, 1986). Douvan (1997) describes Erikson’s theory as the cross roads between an individual and society. Erikson’s stages of development take one through the searching for inner need and continuity all the while trying to find social acceptance. Erikson is so intrigued with culture and its influence on bringing the youth into fully functioning adults that he joined anthropologist in the field studying historic figures and joining the Sioux.
Such studies are called psychohistory (Douvan, 1997). According to Hergenhahn and Olson (2007), the first stage in Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development is infancy. This stage begins at birth and goes through the first year of life and relates to Freud’s oral stage. An infant experiences the crisis of trust or mistrust in this stage. If parents are consistently and lovingly receptive to an infant’s needs then the infant will develop trust, and his/her ego will be strengthened by the addition of the virtue of hope. If parents are inattentive to the infant’s needs then mistrust will develop and the ego will not be strengthened.
Numinous is the ritualization that is associated with this stage and relates to the mother-infant interactions. As a result of interactions the infant should gain positive feelings toward the mother. If the infant’s feelings toward the mother are exaggerated then the ritualism of idolism occurs (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2007). Not much can be recalled by my subject, Marie Lockhart, of her stage of infancy. However, through interviewing her about the events of her life, I infer that she has several issues of trusting others and their abilities and opinions when it comes to her daughter that has been diagnosed with mild mental retardation.
According to Erikson trust and mistrust is the crisis experienced during infancy (Massey, 1986). Also, she has raised her children to idolize her husband and herself. Idolism is the ritualism related to infancy (Massey, 1986). Through her descriptions I see that her children find her superior to all others, including themselves. She has a son who is 26 and a daughter that is 24 and they presently still apply these behavior patterns, although with the son’s marriage things have slowly started to change with his relationship to his parents.
At all costs her children find no wrong in what their parents do or say, and do not dare cross their opinions, wishes or wants. It seems to be a very unhealthy relationship in which they find great satisfaction. I am not sure if this has to do with the things that she experienced during the infancy stage, but it appears to be too closely related not to have some significance. In relation to her own mother and father, Marie stays distant in her relationship, even to the point that her own children do not have strong relationships with this set of grandparents.
On the contrary, Marie appears to demonstrate hope in the aspects of her life so despite these findings; she appears to have emerged positively from the infancy stage. In accordance, Erikson believes that a resolution is neither positive nor negative; instead, it is both positive and negative and it is the ratio of positive to negative that determines the outcome of a crisis (Massey, 1986). Hergenhahn and Olson (2007) describe Erikson’s second stage of early childhood as occurring between ages one year old and three years old. This stage corresponds to Freud’s anal stage.
Early childhood consists of the child learning to talk and becoming mobile. Children can now willingly decide to do something or not to do something. During this stage parents face a significant challenge of controlling the child’s behavior so that it is socially acceptable but by means that are not damaging to the child’s autonomy. The crisis encountered during early childhood is that of autonomy versus shame and doubt. If the parents are successful in shaping their child’s behavior into a socially acceptable manner while not damaging autonomy, then the ego is strengthened and the virtue of will is obtained.
If not, the child experiences shame and doubt. With the virtue of will gained, the ego is able to positively overcome experiences that express shame and doubt. The ritualization associated with early childhood is judiciousness which means the child has learned to express their autonomy in ways that is culturally acceptable and can determine right from wrong. The exaggerated ritualism is legalism. This occurs when the child or the adult his more concerned with punishing and embarrassing the transgressor rather than the being concerned about the law that was broken (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2007).
Again, Marie cannot recall much of this stage of her life. When asked about pictures and stories of her childhood, she does not have much to say. She is the second of six children, two of which are twins. She obviously learns to walk, talk, and she becomes potty trained during this stage as targeted by Erikson. Marie’s personality is very strong willed. She definitely progressed positively through this stage and obtained the virtue of will. As she ages she continues to perfect her ability to get her way at all costs and do so in a semi-socially acceptable way. Marie has obtained the ritualization of judiciousness.
She knows what is right and wrong in the eyes of the law. However, when it comes to her personal family, I do not think she knows what is completely culturally acceptable. To the outsider she seems to be a very nice, generous, selfless person. Although not a horrible person, once getting to know her, one notices that there is usually, but not always, an ulterior motive. Never will Marie be shamed because according to her story, shame has never fallen to her shoulders. Marie does not accept her behaviors as being wrong, only those of others are wrong. Marie has a hard time viewing reality as it is.
Erikson’s third stage as described by Hergenhahn and Olson (2007) is the preschool age in which an individual deals with initiative versus guilt. The preschool stage occurs between the fourth year and the fifth year of a child’s life and corresponds to Freud’s phallic stage. Initiative is experienced if parents encourage their children to venture into the unknown and fanaticize about their futures and explore the world of opportunities around them. If parents punish children for this behavior then guilt will be experienced making the child live in the confines of what others think.
If initiative is experienced then the child’s ego is strengthened yet again, and this time by the virtue of purpose. During this stage children can experience the ritualization of authenticity where they mix various roles figuring out what works and what does not work. On the other hand, the child can experience the ritualism of impersonation. This occurs when the child is consumed by the role and loses the characteristics of their personality gained from previous stages of development (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2007). During the preschool stage Marie begins to recall events in her life.
She remembers playing dress up and school with her siblings. Marie is encouraged to do so by her mother who was very imaginative and had a great love for books of all genres. Throughout her life Marie demonstrates initiative and authenticity. However, I see a decrease in her initiative as she becomes engaged, married, and has children at an early age. She starts to express more guilt as she becomes more involved with her future husband that is four years older than she, and then seems to regain some initiative a few years after her son’s marriage. Hergenhahn and Olson (2007) describe school age as being Erikson’s fourth stage.
This stage lasts from six years old to eleven years old and corresponds to Freud’s latency stage. Children typically attend school during this stage and learn the important lesson of work completion by means of constant attention and persistent conscientiousness. Children will either experience industry or inferiority. With industry comes the ability work with others and to confidently seek out productive places in society. On the other hand, children can experience inferiority which causes a lack of confidence in being productive members of society.
If a child positively emerges from the school age stage he/she will gain competence as a virtue. Likewise, if children learn their true skills and learn what it takes to be a successful member of society they will experience the ritualization of formality. However, a child can also experience the ritualism of formalism which means the child looses site of the reason behind the task and instead, focuses on the technique of completion (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2007). Like all the other stages, I believe Marie advanced through this stage with the associated virtue of competence.
She knows how to be a valued member of society, contributing accordingly. She definitely seeks out the most productive and rewarding work forces. However, Marie has had such an eventful life which has caused much stress. She has not faced those events with a realistic view; therefore, leaving them unaddressed. Marie does not view reality in its raw form; instead, she likes to ignore the “bad” things in life as if they have not even occurred. I believe that she demonstrates formality as a majority, but she does show characteristics of formalism as well.
She constantly loses the meaning of events when it comes to her mentally handicapped daughter. She pushes for what she wants for her instead of objectively examining what would be in her daughter’s best interest. Marie seems to have trouble in every job she has had because she does not believe she is being rewarded enough financially. She had five different jobs within the course of seven years. Erikson’s fifth psychosocial stage of development is adolescence. The adolescent stage extends from twelve years old to twenty years old (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2007).
Within this stage an individual experiences identity crisis and refers this time period as a psychosocial moratorium (Massey, 1986). Massey (1986), states that adolescences is a transition between childhood and adulthood. Before the adolescence stage, children try out all their possibilities and it is now time, by the end of the adolescence stage, for one to grasp hold to one identity (Massey, 1986). To Erikson, identity is a very complex term, and likewise he used it in many different ways (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2007).
Erikson thought identity referred to being comfortable with one’s self, knowing what direction that one was heading, and knowing that one is surrounded with people that care (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2007). Hergenhahn and Olson (2007) find that if an individual leaves adolescences with a positive identity, then the ego will be strengthened with the virtue of fidelity. On the other hand, an individual can leave adolescence with role confusion or a negative identity. Erikson defined role confusion as not being able to choose a role in life which could lead the individual to abandoning commitments.
Erikson believed that negative identities are the roles that parents warn their children against. Along with the crisis of this stage come the ritualization and ritualism, ideology and totalism. Ideology is the ritualization that provides the individual with directions for life. It takes all the ego developments acquired in the previous stages and blends them. Contrary to ideology is totalism in which an individual over-identifies with certain groups. Erikson believes this individual is looking for easy answers and believes that these groups can offer just that.
Marie struggles through adolescence and deals with many things Erikson associates with his next psychosocial stage of development. Much happens to Marie during this time. When she is twelve years old her family moves to Arkansas for her father’s job, stays for two years, and then moves back to her original home. Marie makes really good friends while in Arkansas and still keeps in touch with one of those friends. Because Marie is a good friend of mine, I know that her parents divorce somewhere during this time period, but she does not mention.
When Marie is sixteen years old and a senior in high school, her boyfriend Frank purposes and she accepts. Frank is four years older than Marie and very jealous. She is a cheerleader and loves the social life of high school. Frank is also a very social person but expects Marie to join his social group, and she does. This is a pattern that is prevalent throughout their life together. Marie desires to marry as soon as she turns eighteen and would do so sooner if her parents would agree. Marie and Frank marry one month after her eighteenth birthday. Marie struggles with a decision about her education.
She wants to attend school but being married makes that hard. She chooses to attend Greenville Technical College for paralegal. Marie seems to know what she wants suggesting that she experiences the ritualization of ideology. However, I do not think that Marie advances from adolescence with a true identity. I believe her identity is based on the pressures she had from certain individuals. I gather my conclusion on how she has just recently started emerging as someone I believe she is starting to enjoy. As I mentioned earlier, Marie does not face reality head on; rather, she sweeps things under a rug.
Many of her life’s stressors are starting to force her to deal with them and in turn she is coming out a more identified and well-rounded person. Erikson’s sixth stage is young adulthood and ranges from the ages of twenty years old to twenty-four years old (Massey, 1986). For the young adulthood stage and the remaining of Erikson’s stages there are no relating Freudian stages (Massey, 1986). Hergenhahn and Olson (2007) describe young adulthood as desiring to love and work effectively. Erikson believes that a young adult that develops a strong identity will strongly seek out loving relationships with others.
Those individuals that do not seek out intimacy because of an underdeveloped identity will withdraw from others and seek isolation. The crises associated with young adulthood are intimacy and isolation. If an individual positively overcomes the crisis then he/she will develop the virtue of love and strengthen the ego. The ritualization associated with young adulthood is affiliation. The individual that develops an identity and an ideology that encourages the expression of the developed identity, then he/she will be able to seek affiliation with others in work, friendship, and love.
Affiliation is also associated with the harmonious living with others within the individual’s culture. If affiliation is not experienced, then the ritualism of elitism is felt. Individuals who undergo elitism surround themselves with small groups and tend not to develop deep emotional ties with others (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2007). By this time Marie is already married and desperately wants to start a family. According to Erikson, Marie’s desires to be married and start a family would suggest the development of an identity.
However, I believe that to develop an identity and individual needs some independent time, but not isolation. From the time that Marie should have been deeply engrossed in her search for herself, she was attached to Frank as well as all his needs which affected Marie in more ways than I believe she ever realized. After she graduates from Greenville Technical College she obtains employment at a major finance company and nine months later she becomes pregnant with her son, Douglas. Her husband Frank loses his job of ten years, and is unable to find stable employment.
Frank decides to begin his own construction business. Two years after the birth of her son, Douglas, Marie gives birth to her mentally handicapped daughter, Kristen. At this time Kristen has not been diagnosed, but Marie’s mother-in-law is stressing to Marie that something is wrong. Marie is not ready to admit this. Although Erikson believes an identity is needed to engage in loving relationships with others, I believe Marie developed an identity that was not truly decided upon by her, but it was believable enough that it worked. Marie is a loving mother and wife.
To know Marie is to know that she is a mother to obsession. She loses herself in the role of mother, similar to the role confusion that Erikson mentions in adolescence. At this point Marie loves her job and is enjoying the contacts that she is developing there. Today, she still has engaging relationships with a few of her co-workers from the finance company. Marie leaves young adulthood with the virtue of love, the desire for intimacy, with the ritualization of affiliation. Hergenhahn and Olson (2007) find that Erikson’s seventh stage is adulthood, Marie’s current stage of life.
This stage ranges from age twenty-five to sixty-four. Erikson refers to this stage as middle adulthood. The crises associated with this stage are generativity versus stagnation. Erikson believes that if an individual is lucky enough to have lived a happy, productive life, then he/she will desire to pass these experiences on to the next generation. If the individual experiences a higher ratio of generativity rather than stagnation, then he/she will strengthen his/her ego with the virtue of care. Stagnation, on the other hand produces an individual that no longer experiences personal growth.
Rather, they begin to experience personal misery. The ritualization and ritualism linked to adulthood respectively are generationalism and authoritism. Generationalism envelops all the ways older adults express their cultural values the next generation. Adults that express generationalism find it important that children in the next generation have the abilities to experience the greatness that they once experienced. However, authoritism describes individuals who use their prestige for their own self worth instead of helping the next generation experience positive growth (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2007).
This is Marie’s current stage of development. As I have described her through the previous stages of development I believed she emerged with all the virtues but sill something was not right. This is where Erikson targets Marie. She has been able to live a successful life but through observations her virtues are not strongly developed. Marie breaks down and takes her daughter to a specialist that diagnoses Kristen with a mental disability. Marie tells everyone that Kristen’s disability is mildly mentally retarded. After permission, and reading Kristen’s psychological, she is not mildly mentally retarded.
She is diagnosed as moderately mentally retarded. To someone not knowing Marie this could be a simple slip, but because I know Marie and her issues with denial this is a major issue. During this time Marie’s job moves to Hendersonville and is over an hour away. Her son is starting to get involved in little league sports and she is missing many events. Her mother-in-law is taking care of her children while she works very long hours. Marie decides to take a job closer to home with a car dealership that she is in constant contact with through her current employer.
She is hired as the finance manager, but once again she is working long hours which make her role of mother and wife stressful. She desires to be with her family more, so once again she takes another job. This time she stays at the same company but takes a demotion. She emphasizes that although a cut in pay she does not feel that it changes the social status of her job level. This seems to be very important for Marie. Not long after accepting this job she begins to feel financially unrewarded. She takes a management position in the office of her brother-in-law’s very successful business.
Once again Marie finds herself feeling financially unrewarded and leaves. She finds employment at a local finance company. She will eventually leave this company due to an opportunity that she cannot let pass. As one can see, Marie struggles with finding herself within the elements of employment. Once Marie settles with the last finance company, her mother is diagnosed with COPD and quickly passes away. Her sister is also diagnosed with cancer and given three months to live. Patricia survives two years only to pass away one year after Marie’s mother.
At the time of Patricia’s death, her daughter was twelve and was willed to live with Marie. However, Candace, Patricia’s daughter, wanted to live her father. This became a struggle and Marie eventually forced Candace into living with her. After several years of being unhappy, Candace broke down and defied all odds. She ventured to do something not many people dare to do. She told Marie and Frank exactly how unhappy she was and she was not going to settle until they found a suitable solution which did not include what they wanted. She self-advocated so well.
She is now living with friends of the family. This has caused Marie to examine how she controls people to do as she wishes. This part of Marie’s life is not successfully overcome at this time, but it is closer than ever to being headed down the positive path of solution. All the while, Marie is also dealing with her daughter graduating from high school. Marie has always struggled with the public school system and their abilities to give Kristen what she needs. Marie is very hard to please when it comes to Kristen. Her expectations of her chances of employment are too high up the social status level.
She believes Kristen is too good for the jobs that she is mentally capable of doing. When it comes to Marie and Kristen one must be careful of how to handle the situation. Marie expects people to treat Kristen like she is special and at the same time treat her like she is normal. Marie is always helping Kristen form her opinions of things, just as she has done her son, Douglas. The turning point with Kristen comes when Kristen starts a college level program and is required to live on campus. This forced Marie to give Kristen her independence and the program director enhanced this more.
Marie’s outlook on Kristen is much more desirable and opportunistic now than ever. Through this program Marie is forced to accept Kristen for who she is and to embrace her mental disability rather than to deny it and pamper it. Marie’s ego as well as Kristen’s was strengthened tremendously. The last of Marie’s major life events to this point occurs during the time frame of her mother and sister’s deaths and her daughter’s graduation. Douglas finds a significant other in which he will share his life. This turns Marie and Frank’s world upside down.
They depend on Douglas to be at their side at all times. When Douglas starts spending more time with his girlfriend than his family many fights start between him and his father. Maries says she finds herself in the middle trying to make both understand the other side. Neither Marie nor Frank wants Douglas to have a life independent of their life. She makes the comment that they did not raise him to love anyone outside of the immediate family. They each love so strongly but are very unwelcoming and non-loving to those that will alter their family dynamics even if it is a good alteration.
Despite the consistent attempts to discourage Douglas from furthering the relationship, he gets married. Douglas and his wife have been married for five years now. This has been a constant struggle until the past year. Douglas has a very strong willed wife that recognizes the issues with Marie and Frank and is willing to persevere. Douglas and his wife recently gave birth to a child which for a while added even more stress to the relationship. Douglas’s wife took a stand similar to Candace and forced Marie to face reality. Marie’s life has been unsettling to study and to witness first hand, but Marie is just now recognizing this herself.
During adulthood, Marie has definitely shown stagnation. Up until now, she has not given anything but grief and stress to the next generation. She has been the source of many fights and almost the demise of her son’s marriage. She has hindered Kristen and Candace’s personal growth. Luckily, Marie has been forced to face reality and through the marriage of her son, she has had more to time for self-reflection. Now that Kristen is more independent and during the year and a half she was at college Marie had even more time for herself. I believe that Marie is going to make up the deficiencies in the alues of her ego and make the latter part of adulthood one that displays much generativity. Lastly, Hergenhahn and Olson (2007) describe the stage of old age which is from age sixty-five until death. Erikson refers to old age as late adulthood. He believes those that have led a happy and productive life has ego integrity and does not fear death. Those individuals who are not happy with their life experience despair and are not ready to die because they desire the need to achieve something in their life. When an individual has more integrity than despair he/she gains the virtue of wisdom and once more strengthens their ego.
The ritualization associated with old age is integralism which puts life and death into perspective. An individual that experiences integralism knows that the culture he/she helped grow will advance after his/her death. The exaggeration of integralism results in the ritualism of sapientism. Erikson defined sapientism as believing one has all the answers. A life that displays sapientism is an example of a life with little meaning. Marie is only forty-nine years old and has not reached this stage. If she continues in her personal growth she will experience ego integrity and integralism.
I believe that Marie will achieve this in her life and will gain the ego strengthening virtue of wisdom. She has many people in her life that love her and care, and in return she too wants to care and love them. She especially wants to give so much to her grandchild. Marie’s life develops closely to Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development. She experiences more in the adolescent stage than what Erikson describes. I believe that Marie advanced positively through each stage of development, gaining the virtues hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, and love.
Although I believe these virtues were not strongly developed due to how she confronted difficult situations throughout her life. I believe that Marie will overcome adulthood with the virtue of care which will lead her into old age where she shows signs of being able to obtain the virtue of wisdom. Marie is a very caring and loving person that is learning to channel her love to those outside her family; as well as, learning to appropriately sustain her strong love for her family without controlling them.
As stated earlier, one personality theory is incapable of fully defining an individual’s personality (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2007). This paper discusses Marie’s personality to the limits of Erikson’s personality theory. However, she has many issues that Erikson did not cover such as denial. Marie also faces major life events such as the death of close family members. Erikson’s theory does not encompass the effect that death of close loved ones has on individuals. Erikson’s theory is not designed as a set rule of development only as a measuring tool.
The events in Marie’s life do not fall exactly into Erikson’s developmental stages, but for the most part Erikson’s theory fits her life. It will be interesting to watch the further development of Marie’s life according to Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development. References Chatterjee, P. , Bailey, D. , & Aronoff, N. (2001). Adolescence and Old Age in Twelve Communities. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 28 (4). Retrieved from http://acproxy. ac. edu:2286/login. aspx? direct=true&db=aph&AN=5473051&site=ehost-live Douvan, E. (1997).
Erik Erikson: Critical Times, Critical Theory. Child Psychiatry & Human Development , 28 (1). Retrieved from http://acproxy. ac. edu:2286/login. aspx? direct=true&db=aph&AN=9710151180&site=ehost-live Hergenhahn, B. R. , & Olson, M. H. (2007). An Introduction to Theories of Personality (7th Edition ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Massey, R. (1986). Erik Erikson: New Adlerian. Individual Psychology: The Journal of Adlerian Theory, Research & Practice , 42 (1). Retrieved from http://acproxy. ac. edu:2286/login. aspx? direct=true&db=aph&AN=9101688&site=ehost-live .