Nutrition education towards healthy diets
The load of chronic diseases is quickly increasing worldwide. Non catching diseases including cardiovascular diseases ( CVD ) , diabetes, fleshiness, malignant neoplastic disease and respiratory diseases account for 59 % of the 57 million deceases yearly and 46 % of the planetary load of disease ( WHO, 2008 ) . The proportion of the load of non catching diseases is expected to increase to 57 % by 2020 ( WHO, 2002 ) . Their function as determiners of chronic non catching disease is good established and they therefore occupy a outstanding place in bar activities ( WHO, 2002 ) . It has been shown that a important part of sick wellness is due to a combination of hapless diet and low degrees of physical activity. In peculiar, within the European context, five of the six prima hazard factors for sick wellness are linked to nutrition: these hazard factors are blood force per unit area, cholesterin, high organic structure mass index, ( low ) fruit and vegetable consumption and intoxicant ( WHO, 2002 ) .
Based on Third National Health and Morbidity Survey which was conducted in 2006, in Malaysia, among occupants of Kuala Lumpur from 18 old ages old or older, the prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 12.6 % in 2006, with an extra 6.1 % of the population holding impaired fasting glucose. Harmonizing to the same study, the prevalence of high blood pressure in Kuala Lumpur ( as defined by a‰?140/90 mmHg ) was 22.5 % in 2006 ( Clinical Practice Guidelines, 2008 )
The nutrition scenario in the South-East Asiatic part has changed dramatically in the last two decennaries. Particularly among the urban sections of the community, diet-related
chronic diseases have been on the rise. The chief cause of deceases in most of these developing states in the part is coronary bosom disease ( Tee, 2002 ) . With the addition in these diseases in the part, there has been greater focal point on the function of nutrition in the upsets. Consumers are paying greater attending to the nutritionary value of their diets ( Tee, 2002 ) .
A period of over 20 old ages of sustained economic growing and political stableness has made Malaysia one of the most floaty Southeast Asiatic states. Such rapid promotions in the socio-economic state of affairs in the state, every bit good as in many states in Asia, has resulted in important alterations in the life styles of communities, including nutrient wonts, and nutrient buying and ingestion forms ( Tee, 1999 ) .
Increasing urbanization puts farther strain on the available wellness services and other installations in the metropoliss. There has been increased consumer consciousness and edification among Malaysians. These alterations have resulted in a definite alteration in the nutrient and nutrition issues confronting the communities in Malaysia over the past three decennaries ( Tee, 1999 ) .
Globally, the nutrient industries are under force per unit area to bring forth new and advanced nutrients, particularly nutrient with enhanced nutrition, alimentary map belongingss and wellness and health benefits. A survey sponsored by the European Commission concluded that over 50 % of all nutrient merchandises carried a nutrition facts panel, with state specific rates changing from a depression of 40 % in Poland to a high of 75 % in the UK ( EAS 2004 ) . A more recent reappraisal of 250 jammed merchandises in Spain studies that over 70 % carried a nutritionary facts panel, 43 % provided nutritionary claims and 23 % wellness claims ( CESNID 2007 ) .
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Analysiss on current nutrient ingestion, life style and eating behavior demonstrated that 36 % work forces and 31 % adult females exceeded the guidelines for day-to-day energy consumption for average physical activity. Of even more concern are the consequences for the day-to-day fat consumption: 80 % work forces and 76 % adult females exceed the day-to-day fat consumption recommendations ( 30 % of entire energy consumption ) ( Deutsche et al. 2001 ) . In about the same mode eating wonts have changed worldwide taking to an increased ingestion of prepacked nutrient by and large incorporating high degrees of sugar, fat, saturated fatty acids, trans-fatty acids and Na ( Jones, 2007 ) . To forestall nutrition related diseases the WHO has recommended to cut down these foods in order to better the nutritionary value ( WHO, 2002 ) . Hence consumer involvements in wellness and diet issues have increased and accordingly nutrition labelling has received considerable attending. Interpretational AIDSs can assist consumers to measure the alimentary part of specific nutrients to the overall diet enabling informed consumer picks, taking to the ingestion and accordingly to the production of healthier merchandises ( Cowburn, 2005 ) and ( Vijwanathan, 2002 ) . However, research on nutrition information on packed nutrients showed that the given information is frequently misinterpreted, confounding and inappropriate for gauging an single merchandise ‘s part to the overall diet ( Cowburn, 2005 ) , Pudel et Al, 1996 ) and Drichoutis et Al, 2006 ) .
Pastu? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
The usage of Nutrition Facts labels to assist command weight and better malnutrition among U.S. grownups is now recognized by the FDA, HHS, and USDA. A recent plan introduced by the FDA entitled Make Your Kilogram calories Count ( FDA, 2007 ) includes a tutorial of Nutrition Facts labels and basic nutrition information. It was designed to heighten the general populace ‘s apprehension and use of the Nutrition Facts label, and to promote people to utilize the label to assist accomplish proper weight direction ( FDA, 2007 ) .
To find the relationship between nutrition instruction and label reading behaviour towards healthy diets among consumer.
To find the relationship between nutrition cognition and label reading behaviour towards healthy diets among consumer.
To find the relationship between usage of nutritionary addendum and label reading behaviour towards healthy diets among consumer.
To what widen does nutrition instruction influence label reading behavior among consumer towards their healthy diets?
To what widen does knowledge influence label reading behavior among consumer towards their healthy diets?
To what extend does use of nutritionary addendum influence label reading behavior among consumer towards their healthy diets?
For this survey, a theoretical account based on nutrient label reading behavior is used to develop the theoretical model for this research. The nutrient label reading behaviour theoretical account was developed by ( Ranjita, 2007 )
The nutrient label reading behaviour theoretical account is simplified to develop the theoretical model as the chief aims of this survey is to find the relationship between nutrition cognition, instruction, and usage of nutrition addendum and label reading behaviour towards healthy diets among consumer.
Independent Variables Intervening Variables Dependant Variables
Label Reading Behavior
H1: There is positive relationship between nutritionary cognition and label reading behavior among consumer.
H2: There is positive relationship between cognition and label reading behavior among consumer.
H3: There is positive relationship between usage of nutrition addendum and label reading behavior among consumer.
Significance of the Study
There are many surveies on the food and wellness claim worldwide. However, to the research worker ‘s cognition, there is no survey investigated on consumer cognition on food and wellness claim and the relationship with healthy nutrient ingestion in Malaysia. The determination from this survey could be utile for nutrient industries and Ministry of Health to understand the consumer penetration on their apprehension of alimentary and wellness claims in Malaysia.
1.5 Definition of Footings
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Nutrition Labeling
Nutrition labelling is designed to assist consumers make informed dietetic picks ( Roalands and Hoadley, 2006 ) . Consumers are progressively demanding healthier nutrient merchandises. However, the good health of a nutrient merchandise is non straight discernible to the consumers.
Therefore, they have to deduce it from different information beginnings. One manner of supplying nutritionary information is through nutritionary labelling because labels provide information while retaining consumer freedom of pick, and it reduces information hunt costs for consumers ( Grunert & A ; Wills, 2007 ) . Nutrition information on nutrient labels is regarded as a major agencies for promoting consumers to do healthier picks when shopping for nutrient ( Baltas, 2001 ; Cheftel, 2005 ) .
When analyzing determiners of usage of nutrition information, most surveies have been restricted to an analysis of demographic determiners ( e.g. , Guthrie, Fox, Cleveland, & A ; Welsh, 1995 ; Nayga, 1996 ; see besides Drichoutis, Lazaridis, & A ; Nayga, 2005 ) . Demographic
determiners are of import, non least because the incidence of unhealthy eating wonts is known to be unevenly distributed across societal categories ( e.g. , Hulshof, Brussard, Kruizinga, Telman, & A ; Lo A? wik, 2003 ; Lien, Jacobs, & A ; Klepp, 2002 ; Shelton, 2005 ) .
2.2 Food Label
A label might transport merely the trade name name or a great trade of information ( Kotler, 2001 ) .
These nutrient labels have become progressively complex, peculiarly as merchandises move from the position of basic trade goods to extremely processed, value-added merchandises ( APO, 2002 ) .
Nutritional labels can simplify the whole construct of healthy feeding. It helps to maintain path of the sum of fat and sugar, Na and fibre, protein and saccharides. It besides allows consumers to do an informed opinion of a merchandise ‘s overall value ( APO, 2002 ) .
2.3 Label reading behaviour among consumer
A big figure of empirical surveies have been conducted to analyse the relationship between consumers and the different nutrition information labels on nutrient merchandises. However, most of them have focused on consumer apprehension every bit good as the usage of the nutrition facts panel label and the wellness and nutrition claims. Merely a minority of surveies have been conducted to measure the consequence of different nutrition and wellness labels and/or claims on consumer nutrient pick and/or how much consumers value their proviso.
Roe et Al. ( 1999 ) , Garrestson & A ; Burton ( 2000 ) , Kozup et Al. ( 2003 ) and Basil et Al. ( 2005 ) studied the consequence of two different nutrition and wellness information labels ( facts panels and claims ) on consumer nutrient merchandise ratings, consumer attitude towards merchandises and purchase purposes. Roe et Al. ( 1999 ) studied the consequence of 10 different nutrition and wellness claims on consumer wellness ratings and purpose to buy for three nutrient merchandises. Their consequences indicate that when a nutrient merchandise carries a wellness and, to lesser extent, a nutrition claim, consumers view the merchandise as healthier and province they are more likely to buy it.
Garretson & A ; Burton ( 2000 ) studied the effects of alimentary information contained in the nutrition facts panel and nutrition and wellness claims on consumer attitude and purchase purpose. Kozup et Al. ( 2003 ) carried out the same type of analysis separating between nutrient merchandises and restaurant bill of fare. Findingss indicate that a wellness claim can hold a favorable consequence on merchandise attitude and purchase purpose in both instances. The usage of heuristics to understand nutritionary information is the topic of the survey by Basil et Al. ( 2005 ) . They analyze the consequence of specific wellness and nutrition labels on consumer nutrient determinations in Canada reasoning that when persons use a heuristic to read a nutrition label, they make more accurate nutrient determinations. In other words, consumers prefer utilizing shorter nutrition and wellness information when they take the concluding nutrient merchandise determination cut downing the clip spent on nutrient picks.
Finally, Bond et Al. ( 2008 ) use a pick experiment to gauge the WTP for a figure of wellness and nutrition claims and some production procedure attributes for a packaged ruddy foliage boodle. Consequences showed that specific wellness claims were more valued by consumers than general wellness claims. Label usage is affected by instruction, gender, age and clip force per unit area, i.e. , consumers search for nutrition-related information every bit long as the costs ( clip and/or monetary value ) will non outweigh the benefits ( Drichoutis et al, 2006 ) .
Using a nationally representative sample of U.S. grownups who participated in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ( NHANES ) , the writers found that 61.6 % of participants reported utilizing the nutrition facts panel, 51.6 % used the list of ingredients, 47.2 % read the functioning size, and 43.8 % reviewed wellness claims at least sometimes when make up one’s minding to buy a nutrient merchandise.
2.4 Nutrition instruction and cognition among consumer and label usage
Nutrition cognition has a statistically positive important consequence on nutrition facts panel usage but a non important consequence on the claim usage. These consequences indicate that consumers with higher nutrition cognition are more likely to utilize the nutrition facts panel when shopping, while they show no difference with respects to the frequence of claim usage. The impact of nutrition cognition on facts panel usage is consistent with old surveies ( Guthrie et al. , 1995 ; Szykman et al. , 1997 ; Kim et al. , 2001b ; Drichoutis et al. , 2005 ; Drichoutis et al. , 2006 and Gracia et al. , 2007 ) ,
A deficiency of nutrition cognition can restrict consumers ‘ abilities to understand or measure a wellness claim ( Health Canada, 2000 ) and this deficiency of understanding can decrease the credibleness of claims nutrient label. It besides appears that consumers who are more concerned about nutrition and wellness are more likely to utilize nutritionary labels ( Drichoutis et al, 2006 ) . Consequently, consumers on a particular diet, organic purchasers, and those cognizant of the diet-disease relation are more likely to seek for on-pack nutrition information than others. Education has been found to positively impact label usage. ( Drichoutis et al, 2006 ) .
Nutrition cognition may ease label usage by increasing its perceived benefits and by increasing the efficiency of label usage, thereby diminishing the cost of utilizing labels. Early surveies of label usage found a relationship between nutrition cognition or self perceptual experience of cognition and the usage of specific foods ( Bender and Derby, 1992 ) . Moorman and Matulich ( 1993 ) showed that higher degrees of wellness cognition have a positive consequence on information acquisition from media beginnings ( including nutrition label reading ) . Later, Guthrie et Al. ( 1995 ) , Szykman, Bloom, and Levy ( 1997 ) , and Kim, Nayga, and Capps ( 2001b ) found grounds back uping a positive relationship between label usage and cognition, even though Nayga ( 2000 ) found no grounds back uping this relationship. Moorman ( 1998 ) besides found that consumers with more cognition were less disbelieving toward nutritionary information. In add-on, Levy and Fein ( 1998 ) revealed the positive consequence of cognition on consumer ‘s ability to execute nutrition label usage undertakings. Although it is sensible to anticipate that nutrition cognition can impact nutritionary label usage, it is besides possible that label usage can impact nutrition cognition.
For illustration, consumers can derive more cognition as they read more nutritionary labels from the merchandises they purchase. In fact, Drichoutis, Lazaridis, and Nayga ( 2005 ) found that label usage in general and usage of vitamins/minerals and ingredients information improve consumer ‘s nutrition cognition.
2.4 Labeling and healthy diets among consumer
Surveies show a positive consequence of current diet position on hunt for nutrition information. It appears that consumers with a particular involvement in diet, use nutritionary labeling as a agency to an terminal. Consumers who follow a particular diet may non needfully make it because of a particular medical state of affairs, but because of their general diet-health consciousness ( Drichoutis, Lazaridis and Nayga, 2006 ) . Therefore, in close relation with these consequences, consumers aware of the diet health/diet-disease relation or consumers who perceive diet as of import to their life style, are more likely to utilize on-pack nutrition information and/or wellness claims ( Kim, Nayga, and Capps, 2001 ; Nayga, 2000 ; Shine, O’Reilly, and O’Sullivan, 1997a ; Szykman, Bloom, and Levy, 1997 ; Wang, Fletcher, and Carley, 1995 ) . Awareness of the diet-disease relation may besides positively affect the likeliness of consumers paying attending to the thermal content of nutrients ( Drichoutis, Lazaridis, and Nayga, 2005 ) .
These consequences are amplified when one considers the fact that consumers purchasing organic merchandises are more likely to utilize nutrition information ( Govindasamy and Italia, 1999 ) and that puting importance on following dietetic guidelines or healthy dietetic patterns positively affects nutritionary label usage ( Nayga, 2000 ) or specifically, the usage of fat and sugar content information ( Drichoutis, Lazaridis, and Nayga, 2005 ; Lin and Lee, 2003 ) . Major food market shoppers were found more likely to utilize nutritionary labels ( Drichoutis, Lazaridis, and Nayga, 2005 ; Kim, Nayga, and Capps, 2001 ) , but meal contrivers were found less likely to utilize Calories and/or cholesterin information ( Drichoutis, Lazaridis, and Nayga, 2005 ) possibly because they assign greater value to savor ( Drichoutis, Lazaridis, and Nayga, 2007 ) .
2.5 Demographic factors and label usage among consumers
There has been no consistence in the consequences of surveies conducted sing the determiners of label usage. For illustration, there has been no consensus on the consequence of age, income, or working position on nutritionary label usage. However, instruction and gender ( i.e. , being female ) have been found to positively impact label usage. ( Drichoutis et al, 2006 ) .
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This portion of the survey will discourse and put out the methodological analysis that is traveling to be used in the following phase of the research. The research design, unit of analysis, population and sample size, informations aggregation method and instrumentality are besides discussed.
3.1 Research Design
This survey will use the usage of quantitative research design with a structured questionnaire as the research instrument. A descriptive research design and cross-sectional attack will be used in this survey as informations will be gathered merely one time at the same point of clip for each take parting consumer.
Population and Sample Size
Based on Table for Determining the Random Sample Size from a Determined Population ( Krejcie & A ; Morgan ( 1970 ) , study questionnaire will be distributed to 384 respondents based on 100,000 population in Shah Alam, Selangor. Respondent were indiscriminately selected from hypermarket in Shah Alam.
Table FOR DETERMINING SAMPLE SIZE FROM A GIVEN POPULATION
Note: ” N ” is population size
“ Second ” is sample size.
Krejcie, Robert V. , Morgan, Daryle W. , “ Determining Sample Size for Research Activities ” , Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1970.
Data Collection Method ( Questionaire design? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? )
Questionnaire will be used for informations aggregation method. For nutrition cognition, this will be assessed by the Label Reading Survey ( Marietta et. Al, 1999 ) and four extra inquiries ( energy per gm, good beginning of Ca, low fat, and ingredient list ) were added for a more comprehensive appraisal. Previous research utilizing the Label Reading Survey ( a 39-item questionnaire that step cognition ) among consumers ( Marietta et. Al, 1999 ) .
For nutrition instruction, this will be determined by the inquiry “ have you of all time read, heard, or been taught how to utilize nutrient label information? ” Response was in a yes/no format ( Marietta et. Al, 1999 ) .
For Label Reading Behaviour, this will be determined with ( 20 inquiries ) mensurating pupils ‘ label usage and usage of specific points from the Nutrition Facts panel.
For label usage, four inquiries to measure the general usage of nutrient labels ( utilizing a Likert graduated table where 1.never and 5.always ) , based on the Label Reading Survey ( Marietta et. Al, 1999 ) .
For specific points used from the Nutrition Facts Panel, information was sought on 16 specific points respondents used from the Nutrition Facts panel ( eg, functioning size, protein, saccharide ) scored as 0 ( no ) or 1 ( yes ) . A higher mark represented higher usage of specific points from the Nutrition Facts panel. Coefficient… 95.
Demographic information will be included self-reported age and sex. For day-to-day usage of nutritionary addendums, ( 0.no and 1.yes ) , and prior exposure to label reading instruction ( 0.no and 1.yes ) .
3.4 Pilot Study
Pilot survey to be and the primary intent of these survey is to find whether the instrument could be clearly understood by respondents and to guarantee dependability of the instrument. The pilot trial will be conducted with 30 consumers in Shah Alam, Selangor.
For questionnaire cogency and dependability, collateral factor analysis ( CFA ) will be applied.
Plan for Data Analysis
As the study is handed out on paper, the replies were manually entered into the statistical plan SPSS 19.0 for analysis. Entering informations in SPSS requires the separate inquiries and variables to be defined.
This survey will utilize quantitative analysis. The quantitative analysis will supply information on the independent variable, chairing variable and the extent of relationships between the independent variable, chairing variable and the deduction on dependent variable.
To analyse the informations, internal consistence of the graduated table usage will be assessed utilizing Cronbach ‘s Alpha, as this is the most common accepted and widely used step of dependability.
A descriptive research design and correlativity attack will be used in the survey as organisational surveies are largely correlativity in nature ( Allen, Shore & A ; Griffeth, 2003 ) .
Pearson Correlation Coefficient ( R ) will be used to calculate and depict the nature, strength, way and inter-correlations among the variables.
Arrested development Analysis will be used to prove the research hypotheses. The demographic variables will be statistically command in the coming arrested development analysis.
Based on Gantt Chart, this undertaking is predicted to be completed in 12 months.