An Academic Approach to the Study of History
E.H.Carr said in his book, “When we attempt to reply the inquiry, what is History? ” , our reply, consciously or unconsciously, reflects our ain place in clip and signifiers portion of our reply to the broader inquiry what position we take of the society in which we live. ” ( 1 ) Facts will non talk for themselves. The facts will merely be brought out when the historian calls on them. “A fact is like a poke, it wo n’t stand up boulder clay you have put something in It. ” said by one of Pirandello ‘s characters. ( 2 ) Therefore, in order to analyze the facts or history that written by the historiographer, the historian himself should foremost been studied. In the followers of the essay, a book named ‘A History of Architecture ‘ by Spiro Kostof will be studied and his attack to architectural history will be discussed.
Kostof did non marginalize his survey in any specific sort of architecture, but alternatively, he opened his survey into the full architecture and said, “All edifices of the yesteryear, irrespective of size or position or effect, should ideally be deemed worthy of study.” In his book ( A History of Architecture: Settings and rites ) , his new positions towards architectural survey had been illustrated and this embodied his attack to architectural history pressured on urbanism, widening with architectural plants and demoing how the edifices are implanted in their societal and physical contexts. Besides that, there are four chief points about architecture being highlighted in his survey, which is the unity, the scene, the community, and the significance of architecture. The impression that both aesthetics and construction are coexisting, they can non be separated is what the writer means about the unity of architecture. In his book, he strongly believed that edifice can non be studied singly ; the environment where it was erected is important to understand the map and the complete significance of itself, was the scene of architecture. The kernel of 3rd premiss is all about the community of Architecture. All past edifices, irrespective of physical dimension, location or historical and cultural backgrounds, deserve to be studied. However, historiographers had dwelled on edifices of apparent substance, paying much involvement on public memorials, spiritual architecture and expansive abodes. Last, the significance of architecture – the 4th and concluding premiss of this book concerns the significance of edifices. Buildings are non merely being of an entity. To analyze them holistically, constructs of clip and aim should be embraced. ( 3 )
In his book, the Propylaea was used to explicate and lucubrate the unity of architecture. The Propylaea was a rebuild from the older gatehouse that had stood at an oblique nor’-east to southwest angle by architect Mnesikles. It has two unequal wing connected to the forecourt at the top of the wide side approach the incline. The north wing that decorated luxuriously with pictures was used as a refreshment Centre for the pilgrims and they were served with the usual dining sofas. In the other manus, the south air current was a little chamber that accessible to the Nike temple. A six column portico with Doric agreement but with more impressive proportions, with the cardinal gap well wider than others, had made up the chief unit of the Propylaea. Beyond the gap, emanation will come in a cool and less brightness interior infinite, which is due to light merely accessible in front of the passageway and from the dorsum. A ceiling of marble beams that carried by tall slender ionic columns on either side of the passageway. In order to fit the entryway, the terminal of the transition was a porch with a columnar frontage. These show that the construction, the ornament, the agreement, the design which make up the architecture. They were all belonged to this architecture. Without any of them, this will be considered as an uncomplete architecture.
The 2nd premiss of this book is embracing the scene of architecture, which regards that edifice can non be studied in isolation from immediate context. For illustration, analyzing propylaea as an single construction does non hold any particular significance ; its map and location at the peculiar topographic point is non apprehensible. But if we study the acropolis as a whole, the map of the propylaea is clearly reviewed. The propylaea worked as a passageway, a gate to come in the acropolis. The passageway is cold and dim in comparing with the outer infinite, which create a strong contrast when stepping out the passageway. This will indirectly stress the radiance of the temple, which consequences its visual aspect even more magnificence. Additionally, the propylaea besides created a protection to the temple inside the acropolis.
In order to stand for the community of architecture, Parthenon is the most favorable edifice as people in the ancient Greece had a strong religion in their faith. The Parthenon to the South and the Erechtheion to the North were the two chief temples on the brow, dedicated to Athena Parthenos and Athena Polias, two facets of the goddess as defender of the metropolis. Harmonizing to Perikles, the General of Athens during the aureate age, “ Athens was a godly metropolis, the earthly bastion of all Greek Gods, and the new Parthenon on the Akropolis was its beacon. ” ( 4 ) The Parthenon reflecting signifier of pentelic marble was seeable to the incoming ships and it was greater than all other temples in size and glorious visual aspect where the cost of the edifice was utilised from the general exchequer of the Delian League. It was a temple dedicated to the goddess Athena located on the Athenian Acropolis as the Athenians believed that the goddess Athena is their frequenter. Before the Acropolis of Athens was built, the communion table of Athena was upon this land to give to the goddess Athena. In the twelvemonth of 566 B.C. , the first communion table of the Athena, as the frequenter goddess of Panathenaia was worshipped here. After the conflict of Marathon in 490, a temple was built here to observe the new and more dramatic communal triumph.
At 447 B.C. during the climax period of the Athenian Empire, the Parthenon was built by Perikles to mark the recent Grecian triumph over the Iranian and to honor their frequenter goddess Athena. It was besides played as a replacing of the older temple of Athena, normally known as the Pre-Parthenon or Older Parthenon by the historiographers that were destroyed during the Iranian invasion in 480 B.C. Later on, in 438 B.C. the building of the Parthenon was completed but the ornament of the edifice went on until 432 B.C. The temple is archaeoastronomically aligned to the Hyades and was being used as the same map like most of the Grecian temples- a symbolic topographic point to hive away the hoarded wealth of the authorities. During the Delian League, this ulterior became the Athenian Empire ; the Parthenon was officially served as a exchequer. On the site of an older sanctuary, a little shrine had been excavated within the edifice likely worship to Athena as a manner to acquire closer to the goddess, but ceremonial like cult of Athena Polias, frequenter of Athens had ne’er been hosted by the Parthenon. Overall, although the Parthenon is architecturally a temple and is normally called so, it is non truly one in a conventional sense of the word. To much involvement, it was finally converted to a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary in the 5th century A.D.